Environmental Science Higher Secondary Course
Environmental Science Higher Secondary Course
Agriarchy agriculture is the process that produces food, feed, fiber and other like substances by cultivating some plants and following the domestication of pets. After World War II, the nature of agriculture has changed. The product of food grains and fibers has increased manifold through the use of machines in the use of new techniques, through increased use of fertilizers and pesticides and the use of irrigation systems etc. Due to these changes, the farmers started fulfilling the demand of most food and fiber despite low labor. Though these new techniques have benefited a lot, but there have also been some harmful consequences – due to the decline in the level of the upper layers of land and pollution of underground water, some serious social and environmental problems have arisen. Apart from this, the problem of unemployment has increased in the labors working on the fields using new machines and equipment.
In the last two decades, the role of agricultural experts has been criticized, through which these social problems have increased. Looking at the negative consequences of the methods of modern farming, now the demand for ‘long-term agriculture’ is rising. Sustainable agro system Providing innovative and economically good levels of opportunities for the whole food system to farmers, laborers, consumers, policy makers and others, along with systems to preserve the environment. Is trying.
21.1 Excessive tapping of human needs and environment
With the increasingly urban population worldwide, many cities in developing countries have become the center of poverty. Now half of the world’s population lives in urban areas. In search of jobs, food, shelter, entertainment and a better lifestyle, rural people are continuously departing for urban areas. There is a shortage of other people’s livelihood towards cities, lack of land for agriculture and opportunities in agriculture related employment opportunities. The proportion of population in the urban areas of the world is increasing steadily and this growth is increasing rapidly in developing countries. Poverty (poverty) in urban areas has emerged as a major challenge. The biggest reason for this is that a large number of poor people have come from the villages to the cities. The greatest human need, your survival is required.
21.2 The need to make the quality of the environment the best
Our huge population faces huge pressure on available resources. Consumption of resources at a high rate leads to waste only in large amounts. In order to provide urban citizens with home, food, water, transport related energy, minerals and other means, more and more exploitation and deprivation of forests and agricultural land is excessive. Destruction of rural fertile land, forest wealth and wildlife habitats is aimed at developing cities. At the same time they are able to provide very little food items for their use. From the point of view of environment, our cities are similar to those huge ‘vacuum cleaners’, which not only swallow all the natural wealth, but in return give nothing except pollution, waste and heat.
There is a dire need to improve the situation so that mankind can live in a good quality environment. In order to preserve our own self and live a pleasant life, we need a healthy environment very much.
21.3 Non-profit farming
Sustainable Agriculture is a type of farming system which can destroy adequate land and profit for the population of the present period, without destroying the productivity of the land or causing huge loss to the environment. The long-standing agricultural systems are those that are least toxic, which are capable of proper operation of energy and in spite of this, maintains the level of export and profit, ie, low energy agriculture or organic farming. Therefore, the long-standing agriculture is that: –
– Supports beneficial productivity.
– Conserves environmental quality.
– Efficiently uses natural resources.
– Provides consumers with the right prices, good quality products.
– The less dependent on the property being renewed.
– Improve the standard of living of farmers and rural communities.
– And the well-cultivated agriculture will also be beneficial for the coming generations.
21.4 Methods of Non-farming Agriculture
Different types of methods are involved in the methods of manufacturing in the long-term. At the level of its plan it is necessary that we keep the local geographical topography, the condition of the soil and the nature, the local weather, the people, the local investment and the goals of the farmers in our mind. Farmers (crop growers) have to use their intelligence to select suitable methods for the long-term farming (sustainable agriculture). Some of the following methods are used in long-term farming-
– Selection of plowing methods, which promote biological and economic sustainability.
– Selecting improved varieties as required.
– Proper management and use of soil by proper methods of irrigation.
Many farmers of India and other developing countries have used some traditional methods in this case. These include growing composite plants, growing different plants together and chilling of different crops.
(A) Growing of mixed crop or altered farming
In our country it is an old practice of agriculture. only one