History of Cripps Mission In this article we have described, what is Cripps Mission? Why was it sent to India? What were the main provisions and proposals made in it?
What is the history of creeps mission?
The Cripps Mission was sent by the British government in 1942. The then British Prime Minister Churchill sent labor leader Sir Stafford Cripps to India in 1942 AD. The main objective of this mission was to get India’s full support in World War II.
There were many proposals in it which were against the unity integrity of India. So all the people boycotted it and this mission failed. The National Congress Party of India, the Muslim League and other parties also boycotted the mission.
Why was the Cripps mission sent?
World War II was going on at that time. Britain was facing defeat in Southeast Asia. The Allies (America, China and Soviet Union) wanted India to seek and help Britain’s support in World War II. India supported Britain on the condition that after the war, India should be given full independence and the transfer of solid responsible governance should be done immediately.
Key provisions of Cripps Mission
The Union of India will be established with Dominion state status. This Union of India will be able to make its relations with the Commonwealth countries, the United Nations, other international bodies and institutions independently.
The people of India will be able to form their own constitution on independence.
A concrete plan will be made for the formation of the Constituent Assembly of independent India.
Different provinces of India will be able to make their own constitution (many people were not in favor of this proposal, because it would ensure the partition of India).
India will have the right to secede from the Commonwealth.
The administration of independent India will be given to the Indians.
Why did the Cripps mission fail?
Many attractive offers were made by the Cripps Mission to woo the Indians, yet it failed. Indians could not do this. Large sections of the country’s people did not approve it. Many political parties and groups opposed it.
The Congress party opposed it on the following grounds
India was given Dominion state status instead of complete independence which was not acceptable.
For the representatives of the princely states of the country, there was a system of nomination (selection by will) in place of election (selection by vote) which was not proper.
The Cripps Mission provided for a separate constitution for other provinces of India, the hidden goal of which was to divide India into pieces. This proposal was against the principle of national unity of India. In this proposal, other provinces of India could also be separated from the Indian Union. All these proposals were unfair and unacceptable.
This mission did not include a plan for quick transfer of power after the British left India. The National Congress Party wanted that the administration of independent India should be in the hands of Indians, but it was not explicitly mentioned in the Cripps Mission. Therefore this mission was doubtful and unclear.
In this mission, it was proposed that the Governor General would be considered supreme even after India became independent.
The Muslim League opposed it on the following grounds
The Muslim League did not accept the system of “Single Indian Union”.
The Muslim League did not accept the demand for a separate Pakistan.
The Muslim League was not accepted even by the constitution council of 3 independent India which had been talked about.
The Muslim League was also not in favor of creating a separate constitution of the states.
Other parties boycotted it on the following grounds
Other Indian parties wanted a single Indian Union to be established. Other provinces of India should not be given the right to secede from the Union. So they boycotted the Cripps Mission.
Many people believed that in this way gradually all the provinces of India would be separated by taking advantage of this rule and the country would become weak.
The Hindu Mahasabha also boycotted the Cripps Mission on this basis.
On the proposal of the Cripps Mission, the Dalits were thinking that majority of Hindus could dominate them after the single Indian Union was established and Dalits would have to live at the grace of Hindus (especially upper castes).
The Sikh community boycotted the Cripps Mission as they felt that the state of Punjab would be snatched away from them.
The British government itself did not appear honest about the Cripps mission. The first Cripps mission stated that “a Cabinet was formed” and a “national government” would be established if independent India was declared. But later the British government retracted its own statement and started saying that it was only meant to expand the Executive Council.
In the Cripps Mission, other provinces of India were given the option to merge or separate. But the vote of 60% of the members needed to pass this resolution in the Legislature.
Real intention of british government
The British government itself wanted the Cripps mission not to succeed. She did not want to transfer power to Indians. The then Prime Minister of Britain Winston Churchill, Foreign Minister Emery, Viceroy Linlithgow, and Commander in Chief Wavell themselves wanted the Cripps mission to fail. Negotiations between the leaders of the Indian National Congress and Stafford Cripps broke over the Viceroy’s veto issue and the Cripps mission failed.
What did Mahatma Gandhi say about the Cripps Mission?
Mahatma Gandhi said of the Cripps Mission that “it was a forward-looking check whose bank was going to be destroyed”